Femoropatellar dysplasia (outward running knee disc):
Painful knees can result from different influences and causes. It is not always the case that over- and underloading of the knees must lead to these symptoms. Sometimes it can also be congenital abnormalities and misalignments.
Malformations of the knee disc or of the thigh roll can lead to a changed fit of the knee-disc back surface and corresponding groove in the upper thigh side.
In most cases, the discomfort is noticeable when walking or getting up from a perched position. In these movements, the load or the tension and the pressure on the knee disc and the knee carcass in which it is embedded is particularly strong. Frequently the symptoms are a result of overload.
A correction of the malposition is achieved by splitting the external suspension of the knee disc (lateral release), which is performed with a minimally invasive arthroscopic ambulatory operation
Free joint body in the knee joint:
The joint mouse in the knee is a disease that can occur in osteochondrosis dissecans or Ahlbäck’s disease. In this case, a circumscribed bone tissue with cartilage from the environment dissolves. In this case, a free joint body is formed. In this case one speaks of a joint mouse, which has left the mouse bed.
Blood Circulation disorders of the knee joint can lead to the triggering of free joint bodies (articular mouse). However, free joint bodies can also be present or arise in the knee joint due to the condition or the wear.
There are stress-related pain and blockages, giving-way ‘episodes indicated. Patients often complain about a final movement restriction.
A minimally invasive arthroscopic operation of the knee, which is to be performed on the outpatient basis, removes free articular bodies and thus avoids further damage to the articular cartilage.
Cartilage damage of the knee joint:
The bone parts in the joint are covered by cartilage. This smooth, firm and elastic layer ensures that the joint can be moved easily and without friction. When this layer is damaged, it is known as cartilage damage (chondropathy), which is classified by 1 to 4 degrees.
In most cases, accident-related injuries with a severe load introduction to the knee joint trigger for early cartilage damage. In addition, as a succession of defects or previous joint diseases such as rheumatism, bleeding disorders of the bone or expired infections.
Moderately pronounced changes (early stages of Knee arthritis) can be treated very well with intraarticular hyaluronic injections. The injected hyaluronic acid returns the lost viscosity to the articular fluid. The hyaluronic acid is responsible for the lubricating consistency of the synovial fluid. The hyaluronic acid has a similar function as the oil in the engine and transmission of a car.
Cartilaginous stenosis, tapping and cartilaginous bone transplants are possible with moderate cartilage damage. With minimally invasive arthroscopic operations cartilage treatment will be carried out specifically.
In the case of high-grade cartilage damage and complete cartilage damage, often only the endoprosthetic replacement of the knee joint (total knee replacement or hemiarthroplasty of the knee) remains.
Injuries of medial and lateral meniscus (meniscopathies):
The meniscus is a shock absorber and force transmitter in the knee. Menisci are C-shaped, fibrous cartilage. They lie in the knee joint like a wedge between the joint surfaces of the shinbone and thigh bone.
Triggering movements are usually twisting movements of the thigh against the fixed lower leg
For example in sports such as skiing or football (traumatically conditioned). A meniscus rupture is also caused by age-related wear or a chronic overloading of the knee joint, for example in some occupational groups with predominantly crouching activity, such as tiler.
In an acute meniscus, the pain usually occurs suddenly, with degenerative changes in the knee they develop over a longer period of time and become worse and worse. A burning, knife-like pain is typical when the thigh is twisted against the fixed lower leg. Depending on the malformed condition of the meniscus, clamping phenomena with a pronounced movement restriction can result.
With a minimally invasive arthroscopic operation of the knee, which is done on the outpatient basis, meniscus damages are treated. The surgical procedures are dependent on the localization of the injury and the age of the patient.
Anterior cruciate ligament rupture:
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of 4 important stabilizing ligaments in the knee joint and prevents the lower leg from shifting forward against the thigh.
Most of the events that result in cruciate ligament injuries are sporting accidents: sports with fast directional changes have the highest rates of crossborder injuries such as soccer and handball.
The knee becomes unstable by a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament. A cruciate ligament rupture can cause a wobble sensation in the knee and even a recurrent kink of the leg. In the subsequent episode of the cruciate ligament tear, meniscus or cartilage damage often occurs. From this a severe knee joint wear, an arthritis, develops over the course of several years.
The operation is minimally invasive by arthroscopy. In this case, only two or three access points, which are only a few millimeters in size, are necessary for a mini camera and for the finest surgical instruments. As a transplant, either two tendons can be used on the inner side of the thigh (semitendinosus tendon, Gracilis tendon), or a part of the knee rupture tendon (patellar tendon or quadriceps tendon). The fixation takes place using screw-like implants, so-called interference screws, which consist of bio-resorbable material.